# 一般时态、定语从句与阅读选择 - 英语(二)

# 单词复习

muscle college even marriage grow violence wine around experience weight fact building while health unhealthy mean resource dormitory process adult

# 高频词汇

1. living [ˈlɪvɪŋ] adj. 活的 n.生机 v.居住 live 的 ing形式

In plants and other living things that have no brain. it must be something else. (brain [breɪn] n.头脑 智力)

在植物何其他没有大脑的生物中,它(生物钟)肯定是被其他事物所控制

I make a living and meet interesting people sometimes.

这是我谋生的方式,有时候会见到有趣的人。

After living in Europe for seven years, my parents decided that my family would move to the United States.

在欧洲居住了7年之后,我的父母决定要搬家到美国 united [juˈnaɪtɪd] adj.一致的,统一的 States [steɪts] n. 州

2. seed [siːd] n.种子 vt.播种

You've eaten oranges and grapes without seeds. 你已经吃过无籽的橘子和葡萄 grape [ɡreɪp] n.葡萄

3. speaker [ˈspiːkə(r)] n.演讲者

When a speaker shares his personal stories he will be better accepted by the audience. [ˈɔːdiəns] n. 观众;听众

当一个演讲者分享他自己的故事,他就会容易被观众接受 be better accepted 被动语态

4. adult [əˈdʌlt] n.成年人 adj.成年的;成熟的

Large numbers of women and young adults born during the baby boom entered into the work force.

大量妇女和出生于婴儿潮时期的年轻人步入了劳动力大军。 entered ['entə(r)d] v.进入 boom [buːm] 繁荣,大量

5. biological [ˌbaɪəˈlɒdʒɪkl] ajd.生物的,生物学的

Scientists use the term biological clock to describe the timing that controls biological rhythms.

scientist [ˈsaɪəntɪst] n.科学家 term 术语,学期 rhythm[ˈrɪðəm] n.节奏、韵律 y 一般读 I 的音 dry try cry

科学家们用术语 生物钟 来描述时间如何控制生物的节奏

6. care [keə(r)] n. 关怀;照料,忧虑

They also teach runners to set practical goals and take care of their bodies.

practical [ˈpræktɪkl] adj. 实际的;实用性的 goals [gəʊlz] n.目标,进球 take care of 照顾

他们还教跑步者设定具体的目标,照顾好自己的身体 I don‘t care 我不在意 who cares? 谁管啊

7. dormitory [ˈdɔːmətri] n.宿舍

When you live in a dormitory, you can enjoy a wide range of campus services, which are not available to those who live off campus.

campus [ˈkæmpəs] n. (大学)校园 available [əˈveɪləbl] adj.可获得的;可购得的 range [reɪndʒ] 范围

当你住在宿舍时,你可以享受很多的宿舍服务,这些服务是不提供给那些不住宿舍的人的。

8. farming [ˈfɑːmɪŋ] n.农业 farm n.农场

Experts say indoor farming solves many problems.

专家说室内农场解决了很多问题 expert ['ekspɜ:ts] n. 专家;人才

9. humor [ˈhjuːmə] n.幽默、诙谐

There are a couple of things to kown about the use of humor in a speach.

以下几点是有关在演讲中诙谐的使用,这些是你需要知道的。 a couple of 两三个,一对

10. mean [miːn] vt.意味 n. 平均值

This means you need to make peace with the things and people around you.

这意味着你需要和你周围的人和事和平共处。

11. mood [mu: d] n.情绪

The first song will lift your mood a little.

第一首歌会让你情绪好一些。 lift v.提高 n.电梯

# 语法

# 三种一般时态

  1. 一般现在时,现在发生的事情 I love you. 我爱你
  2. 一般过去时,过去发生的事情,和现在没联系 I loved you. 我爱过你
  3. 一般将来时。将来要发生的事情 I will love ypu. 我会爱你的,(备胎)

句子组成:

  • 一般现在时: 主语 + 动词原型或单三(do/does)
  • 一般过去时: 主语 + 动词过去式(did)
  • 一般将来时:主语 + will + 动词原型 / 主语 + be going to + 动词原型(do)

# 一般现在时

主语 + 动词原型或单三(do/does)

单三:单数第三人称,意思就是,在第三人称单数(he, she, it, my father, the dog...)后面的动词要加s或es

I love you.

He loves you.

Mike gives(give) me a book. 迈克给我一本书

# 一般过去式

语 + 动词过去式(did),过去式的变化,一般情况下,在动词后面直接加ed

plant-planted

He planted a tree yesterday. 他昨天种了一棵树

一般过去时, 不规则动词

do -> did 做, go -> went 走、去, buy -> bought 买, send -> sent 送 speak -> spoke 说, sing -> sang 唱, come -> came 来, become -> became 成为 run -> ran 跑, cut -> cut 剪, 切

例子

I ______(buy) some apples the day before yeaterday. bought 我前天买了一些苹果

My father ______(go) to swim this morning. went 我爸爸今天早上去游泳了,看起来像现在时,但实际是过去时

# 一般将来时

I will love ypu. = I am going to love you

He will love you. = He is going to love you

We will love you. = We are going to love you

be going to,系动词 be 的三种形式 am / is / are,使用场景

  1. am 主语是第一人称单数 I (我)
  2. is 主语是第三人称单数, he she it (他/她/它)
  3. are 主语是第一人称复数 we (我们)、第二人次 you (你/你们)、第三人称复数 they (她们/他们/它们)

# 判断时态

I went to collage in 2013. 一般过去时

He likes to watch TV. 一般现在时

They are going to see you tomorrow. 一般将来时

We will rock you! 我们要震撼你 一般将来时

# 定语从句

这是一棵树. Thie is a tree.

这是一颗高大的树. This is a tall tree. 如果定语可以用一个词来表示,就不是从句

只是一颗我钟的树. This is a tree + conj.(连词) + I plant.

修饰名词的成分叫做定语,conj. + I plant 是定语从句(定语是一个句子)

怎么判断一个句子是否是定语从句

  1. 位置:位于名词后面.
  2. 标志: that,who,which,when,where
  3. 理解:定语从句是指从句做定语成分修饰前面名词

e.g.

I have never seen everyone that could dance like that.

Those are the students who saved the cat.

The house which was built 20 years ago is now a city library.

Have you been to the park where they had patry?

I will always remember the day when I met you.

# 关系代词与关系副词

定语从句 连接词 为关系词,比如 that, who, which, when, where

This is a tree that I plant. 关系代词

I will always remember the day when I met you. 关系副词(met meet的过去时)

  • 关系代词 (n) who / whom(很少见) / whose / which / that
  • 关系副词 (adv) when / where / why / prep.(介词) + which / whom

1.在句子中怎么判断是使用关系代词还是使用关系副词呢? 看从句子是否缺成分

当从句却成分时,需要用关系代词,比如 I plant 只有 主 谓 没有宾语,所以要用关系代词

I met you. 从句不缺成分,用关系副词

2.确定使用关系代词或关系副词后,怎么确定具体用那个呢?

who/whom 人 whose 谁的 which/that 一般指物,that也可以指人

when 前面的名词是时间, where 前面的名词是地点,why 前面的名词是原因

The man ____ I talked to saw the accident. 看见了事故 whom / who / that 主句(see => saw 主句是过去时) + 从句(粗体)

The gift ____ he bought wasn’t expensive. which/that (wasn't 是be动词,也是动词)

从句的划分

  1. 从空格开始画,空格后面只有一个动词,从句画到最后
  2. 从空格开始画,空格后面如果有2个动词,画到第一个动词后面。

关系代词在从句中充当宾语的时候可以省略

The man I talked to saw the accident.

The gift he bought wasn't expensive.

3.which和that的区别

The gift which/that he bought me wasn't expensive.

The gift, which he boughtme, wasn't expensive.

看到逗号只能用 Which

# 真题练习

Business English learning encourages professional and efficient communication, and promotes service to customers and business partners, ____ is a great advantage for any business. which

# 题型讲解

# 阅读选择题

# 细节题

According to / 直接考文章内容

  • 推断题(可能性的词:Probably/直接考文章内容) [ˈprɒbəbli] adv 大概、或许、很可能
  • 词意猜测题

解题步骤:

  1. 阅读题目(注意不要先读文章,先看题)
  2. 寻找关键词回归定位,找出题目在原文中的出处

①.准确确定题干中的关键词:什么时候谁在哪干嘛 (时间、地点、人名、数字、专有名词、短语、形容词副词比较级)

②.带着关键词回归文章定位

③.重点阅读出现关键词处的部分

④.按照顺序阅读,不要上下捋

  1. 原文重现 / 同义替换

# 主旨题

(5.This text is mainly about the / 5. The best title for this text is _____ )

  1. 看首段,找关键词
  2. 如果首段看不出来,看尾段,找关键词

# 真题1

The Kilt

Whenever people from Scotland live in foreign countries, they are always asked: "Is Scotland that place where men wears skirts?" The short answers is yes, but there is more about the myths of Scottish "skirts".

The "Skirt" that Scotsmen(苏格兰男子) sometimes wear is called a kilt. It is part of the traditional dress of Scotland. The kilt is clearly very famous across the world. It seems that everybody has heard of it, and that most people have seen a picture of a man wearing one.

People Knowledge and ideas about Scotsmen wearing these funny kilts come from films and television. Every time people from other countries ask about the kilt, the mention Mel Gibson's film, Braveheart. IN many countries, there are television programmes about Scotland. These programmes always include information or images of men in kilts.

Of course, in Soctland, you will often see the kilt. The reality is, though, that you will most commonly see it in tourist areas. The main streets and tourist areas of Scotland always have a Scotsman wearing a kilt and all tourist shops in the country sell kilts in different colours.

But kilts are not something that Scottish people see every day. Kilts are for special occasions, such as weddings, funerals and other big and important events. Scotsmen do not put on their kilt just to buy a bottle of milk and a loaf of bread at the local supermaket.

The reason for this may be that kilts are every expensive. When a man wears a kilt, he normally wears it with a special shirt, jacket, socks and shoes. This is obviously not cheap. In fact, an average kilt outfit(全套服装) costs around £ 500. (pound [paʊnd] 英镑)

kilt [kɪlt] n.(苏格兰传统男式)短褶裙;女式格呢褶裙

skirt [skə:ts] n. 裙子;短裙

shirt [ʃɜːt] n. 衬衫

myth [mɪθ] 神话、虚构的事、谬见、传说

scottish [ˈskɒtɪʃ] adj. 苏格兰的 n. 苏格兰人

mention [ˈmenʃn] n. 提及,说起

Mel Gibson 梅尔·吉布森

Braveheart 勇敢的心

programmes ['prəʊgræmz] n.方案、计划、程序、节目 v. 安排节目

reality [riˈæləti] n.现实 实际;真实

tourist [ˈtɔːrɪst] n.旅行者 vi. 旅游;观光

main [meɪn]

colours ['kʌləs] n. 颜色 colour adj 彩色

occasions [əˈkeɪʒn] 场合

weddings [ˈwedɪŋ] n 婚礼

funerals [ˈfjuːnərəl] n. 葬礼

put on 穿上

a bottle of 一瓶

loaf [ləʊf] 条,一条面包,块

£ 英镑 1英镑=8.592人民币 2020/03/15

1. According to this text, Scotsmen ( )

  • A like foreign culture
  • B sometimes wear kilts
  • C enjoy talking about kilts
  • D often visit foreign countries

2. Mel Gibson is probably a ()

  • A painter
  • B musician
  • C movie star
  • D fashion designer

3. In Scotland, kilts are more often seen ( )

  • A in tourist shops
  • B in public schools
  • C on the stage stage [steɪdʒ] 阶段、舞台
  • D at local markets

4. People do not wear kilts every day probably because of their ( )

  • A funny designs
  • B dull colours
  • C poor quality
  • D high prices

5. This text is mainly about the ( )

  • A history of kilts
  • B production of kilts
  • C myths of kilts
  • D style of kilts

BCADC

# 真题2

It is estimated that there are more than 8 million restaurants in the world today. So it might surprise you to learn that restaurants as we know have only existed for a few centuries. Before 1765, there were no restaurants. There was nowhere in which a server brought you food and drink that you chose from a menu. In fact, there was no menus anywhere.

There were places where travelers could eat centuries before that. The countryside was full of inns that would serve food. And there were bars where one could get a drink. The rich could also eat meals supplied by private cooks. But there was nothing that could be called a "restaurant".

A Frenchman changed that In 1765, he opened a place in Paris that sold soups. On his sign, he used the term "restaurant" to describe what he was selling. Soups were considered "restorative", so he called them "restaurants". Finally, people started buying his soups even when not ill. And as time went on, people began to use the term "restaurant" to refer to the place where soup was sold rather than the soup itself. More "restaurants" opened up in Frence, and people began to buy soups more regularly.

estimated [ˈestɪmeɪt] n. 估计

restaurant [ˈrestrɒnt] n. 餐馆、饭店

exist [ɪɡˈzɪst] 存在

century [ˈsentʃəri] n. 世纪,百年;

server 服务 员

nowhere 无处,anywhere 任何地方

brought [brɔːt] v. 带来 (bring的过去分词)

chose v choose 的过去式, 选择

travelers ['trævələz] n. 旅行者;旅客(traveler的复数形式)

countryside [ˈkʌntrisaɪd] n. 农村,乡下;乡下的全体居民

be full of 充满

inn [ɪn] n. 客栈;旅馆,酒店

serve [sɜːv] 服务,供应

bars n. [建] 酒吧(bar的复数形式

meal [miːl] n.一餐 膳食 vt. 进餐

cooks n. 一般的厨师和炊事人员(cook的复数形式)

sign [saɪn] n. 迹象;符号;记号;手势;指示牌 vi. 签署;签名

term [tɜːm] n.术语

describe [dɪˈskraɪb] vt. 描述,形容;描绘

selling 销售, 出售

consider [kənˈsɪdə(r)] v. 考虑 considered 被认为

restorative [rɪˈstɒrətɪv] n. 滋补剂;恢复药;补酒 adj. 有助于复元的,恢复健康的;

ill [ɪl] adj. 生病的

as time went on 随着时间的推移

to refer 参考;提交;涉及;咨询

regularly [ˈreɡjələli] adv. 定期地;有规律地;整齐地;匀称地

1. Before 1765, travelers could have meals at a(n) ( )

  • A bar
  • B inn
  • C restaurant
  • D canteen [kænˈtiːn] n. 食堂,小卖部;水壶

2. The first "restaurant" only served ( )

  • A soups [su:ps] 汤
  • B desserts [dɪˈzɜːt] n. 餐后甜点;甜点心
  • C drinks
  • D fruits

3. The word "restorative"(Line 3, Para.3) most probably means ( )

  • A having a special flavor ['fleɪvə] n. 情味,风味;香料;滋味
  • B marking you happier
  • C having a pleasant smell [ˈpleznt] adj. 令人愉快的,舒适的;
  • D marking you healthier adj. 更健康(healthy的比较级)

4. The restaurant concept start in ( ) [ˈkɒnsept] n. 观念,概念

  • A America
  • B Britain [ˈbrɪtn] n. 英国;不列颠
  • C Germany
  • D France [frɑːns] n. 法国;法郎士(姓氏)

5. The best title for this text is ( )

  • A Definition of Restaurant 定义
  • B Importance of Restaurant 重要
  • C Origin of Restaurant 起源
  • D Types of Restaurant 种类

BADDC

# 真题3

Garlic has a long history of human use of over 7,000 years, It was originally grown in Asia. It finally made its way to Europe and South and North Americas in the 16th century. It rapidly spread to the world because it was easy to grow and could stay alive in poor conditions.

Garlic has also long been used in medicine. Egyptians fed garlic to the slaves to keep up their strength and to defend against diseases. The Romans believed that garlic cured many diseases and helped heal wounds. Greeks gave garlic to athletes during the Olympic Games in order to increase their strength.

More recently, garlic has been mentioned as being used as a treatment for battle wounds in both World Wars. In fact, even today people eat garlic for its supposed benefits. For example, many people eat garlic to help fight colds and coughs. Some even claim that garlic can help prevent high blood pressure and cancer.

A different use for garlic in the past was to keeep away bad spirits. In some countries, people believed that if they wore garlic around their necks, bad things would not enter their bodies. And if they hung garlic outside the doors of their homes, bad things would go away.

Garlic is now grown everywhere in the world. China is the largest product of garlic, followed by India, South Korea, Egypt and Russia. The popularity of garlic has increased over the years, It is now widely used in all types of cooking. Chinese dishes use garlic. Italian dishes include a lot of garlic, too. Garlic is now highly valued for its taste throughout the world.

garlic [ˈɡɑːlɪk] n.大蒜 蒜头

originally [əˈrɪdʒənəli] adv. 最初,起初;本来

Asia [ˈeɪʒə] n. 亚洲

make its way to sp 走到

Europe [ˈjʊərəp] n.欧洲

century [ˈsentʃəri] n. 世纪,百年;(板球)一百分

spread [spred] vi. vt. 传播,散布;展开;伸展;铺开

rapidly [ˈræpɪdli] adv. 迅速地;很快地;立即

medicine [ˈmedɪsn] n. 药;医学;内科;巫术

Egyptians [i:'dʒipʃənz] n. 古埃及人, 与古埃及相关的

fed [fed] v. 喂养;以……为食;给(植物)施肥;给(火)添加燃料;增进,助长;满足(毒瘾)(非正式)(feed 的过去式和过去分词)

slaves [sleɪvz] n. 奴隶, 服伺的人; 侍女;

strength [streŋθ] n. 力量;力气;兵力;长处

defend against [dɪˈfend] [əˈɡeɪnst] 防卫,保卫;抵抗

against 反对、预防,紧靠

diseases [dɪ'zizɪs] n. [医] 病(disease的复数);[医] 疾病;[植保] 病害;疾病种类

Romans [ˈrəʊmənz] 古罗马人

believe [bɪˈliːv] vt. 相信;认为;信任

cured ['kjuəd] v. 治愈(人或动物);治好(疾病);解决(问题);矫正(不良行为) adj. 熏制的,风干的

heal [hiːl] vt. 治愈

wound [wuːnd] n. 创伤,伤口

Greeks [ɡriːk]s n.希腊人

athletes ['æθli:ts] n. 运动员;身强体健的人(athlete的复数形式)

Olympic [əˈlɪmpɪk] adj. 奥林匹克运动会的;古奥林匹亚的

increase [ɪn'kriːs] v. 增加;增大;提高;增强

more recent 较新的

recently [ˈriːsntli] adv. 最近;新近

mention [ˈmenʃn] vt. 提到,谈到;提及,论及;说起 n. 提及,说起

treatment [ˈtriːtmənt] n. 治疗,疗法;处理;对待

battle [ˈbætl] 与某某作战,斗争

both World Wars 两次世界大战

supposed [sə'pəuzd] adj. 假定的,据说的;坚信的,期望的 v. 认为,推断;假定,设想;

benefit [ˈbenɪfɪt] n. 利益,好处;救济金

supposed benefits 假定的,预期的好处

cough [kɒf] 咳嗽

claim [kleɪm] v. 宣称;要求,索取;

blood [blʌd] n. 血,血液;血统

high blood pressure 高血压

pressure [ˈpreʃə(r)] n.压力

上次更新: 2020/10/29 下午10:59:19